Kamis, 17 Februari 2011

Narrative Text

1. Kembalinya kebebasan Raja Parakeet
2. Bubur yang aneh
3. Lebay Malang
4. Sang Katak
1.   Batu Badaon
7. Anjing yang hebat
8. Si Pahit Lidah
9. Asal Usul Danau Toba
                This is a small example  Narrative Text from Indonesia. 
      a)      Purpose ( Social Function )
                To entertain listeners or readers with a true experience or an
imaginary one. The characteristic of the text is marked by conflict and resolution.
b)      Generic Structure of Narrative text
  • ·         Orientation
It is about the opening paragraph where the characters of the story are introduced.
  • ·         Complication
Where the problem in the story developed e the problem in the story developed.
  • ·         Resolution
Where the problem in the story is solved.

Example Narrative Text :
Silent Love
Once, there was a couple who love very much each other. From the very beginning, the girl's family objected strongly on her dating this guy. Saying that it has got to do with family background & that the girl will have to suffer for the rest of her life if she were to be with him.
Due to family's pressure, the couple quarrel very often. Though the girl love the guy deeply, but she always ask him: "How deep is your love for me?"
As the guy is not good with his words, this often cause the girl to be very upset. With that & the family's pressure, the girl often vent her anger on him. As for him, he only endure it in silence.

After a couple of years, the guy finally graduated & decided to further his studies in overseas. Before leaving, he proposed to the girl: "I'm not very good with words. But all I know is that I love you. If you allow me, I will take care of you for the rest of my life. As for your family, I'll try my best to talk them round. Will you marry me?"
The girl agreed, & with the guy's determination, the family finally gave in & agreed to let them get married. So before he leave, they got engaged.
The girl went out to the working society, whereas the guy was overseas, continuing his studies. They sent their love through emails & phone calls. Though it's hard, but both never thought of giving up.
One day, while the girl was on her way to work, she was knocked down by a car that lost control. When she woke up, she saw her parents beside her bed. She realized that she was badly injured. Seeing her mum crying, she wanted to comfort her. But she realized that all that could come out of her mouth was just a sigh. She has lost her voice......
The doctors says that the impact on her brain has caused her to lose her voice. Listening to her parents' comfort, but with nothing coming out from her, she broke down.
During the stay in hospital, besides silence cry, it’s still just silence cry that companied her. Upon reaching home, everything seems to be the same. Except for the ringing tone of the phone. Which pierced into her heart every time it rang? She does not wish to let the guy know. & not wanting to be a burden to him, she wrote a letter to him saying that she does not wish to wait any longer.
With that, she sent the ring back to him. In return, the guy sent millions & millions of reply, and countless of phone calls, all the girl could do, besides crying, is still crying....     
The parents decided to move away, hoping that she could eventually forget everything & be happy.
With a new environment, the girl learn sign language & started a new life. Telling her everyday that she must forget the guy. One day, her friend came & told her that he's back. She asked her friend not to let him know what happened to her. Since then, there wasn't any more news of him.
A year has passed & her friend came with an envelope, containing an invitation card for the guy's wedding. The girl was shattered. When she open the letter, she saw her name in it instead.
When she was about to ask her friend what's going on, she saw the guy standing in front of her. He used sign language telling her "I've spent a year's time to learn sign language. Just to let you know that I've not forgotten our promise. Let me have the chance to be your voice. I Love You. With that, he slipped the ring back into her finger. The girl finally smiled.

Direct & Indirect Speech

When using indirect or reported speech, the form changes. Usually indirect speech is introduced by the verb said, as in I said, Bill said, or they said. Using the verb say in this tense, indicates that something was said in the past. In these cases, the main verb in the reported sentence is put in the past. If the main verb is already in a past tense, then the tense changes to another past tense; it can almost be seen as moving even further into the past.

Verb tense changes also characterize other situations using indirect speech. Note the changes shown in the chart and see the table below for examples. With indirect speech, the use of that is optional.

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
simple present
He said, “I go to school every day.”
simple past
He said (that) he went to school every day.
simple past
He said, “I went to school every day.”
past perfect
He said (that) he had gone to school every day.
present perfect
He said, “I have gone to school every day.”
past perfect
He said (that) he had gone to school every day.
present progressive
He said, “I am going to school every day.”
past progressive
He said (that) he was going to school every day.
past progressive
He said, “I was going to school every day.”
perfect progressive
He said (that) he had been going to school every day,
future (will)
He said, “I will go to school every day.”
would + verb name
He said (that) he would go to school every day.
future (going to)
He said, “I am going to school every day.”
present progressive
He said (that) he is going to school every day.

past progressive
He said (that) he was going to school every day
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
auxiliary + verb name
He said, “Do you go to school every day?”
He said, “Where do you go to school?”
simple past
He asked me if I went to school every day.*
He asked me where I went to school.
He said, “Go to school every day.”
He said to go to school every day.

*Note than when a Yes/No question is being asked in direct speech, then a construction with if or whether is used. If a WH question is being asked, then use the WH to introduce the clause. Also note that with indirect speech, these are examples of embedded questions.
The situation changes if instead of the common said another part of the very to say is used. In that case the verb tenses usually remain the same. Some examples of this situation are given below.

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
simple present + simple present
He says, “I go to school every day.”
simple present + simple present
He says (that) he goes to school every day.
present perfect + simple present
He has said, “I go to school every day.”
present perfect + simple present
He has said (that) he goes to school every day.
past progressive + simple past
He was saying, “I went to school every day.”
past progressive + simple past
He was saying (that) he went to school every day.

past progressive + past perfect
He was saying (that) he had gone to school every day.
future + simple present
He will say, “I go to school every day.”
future + simple present
He will say (that) he goes to school every day.

Another situation is the one in which modal constructions are used. If the verb said is used, then the form of the modal, or another modal that has a past meaning is used.

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
He said, “I can go to school every day.”
He said (that) he could go to school every day.
He said, “I may go to school every day.”
He said (that) he might go to school every day.
He said, “I might go to school every day.”

He said, “I must go to school every day.”
had to
He said (that) he had to go to school every day.
have to
He said, “I have to go to school every day.”

He said, “I should go to school every day.”
He said (that) he should go to school every day.
ought to
He said, “I ought to go to school every day.”
ought to
He said (that) he ought to go to school every day.

While not all of the possibilities have been listed here, there are enough to provide examples of the main rules governing the use of indirect or reported speech. For other situations, try to extrapolate from the examples here, or better still, refer to a good grammar text or reference book.
Some other verbs that can be used to introduce direct speech are: ask, report, tell, announce, suggest, and inquire. They are not used interchangeably; check a grammar or usage book for further information.

Descriptive Text

     Descriptive text is a text which say what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.                 
  •  Generic structure of Descriptive Text is :
o   Identification           :   Identifies phenomenon to be describe.
o   Description               :   Describes part, qualities, and characteristics.
  •  Language Features:
a)      The use of adjectives and compound adjectives.
Ex :
- a five hundred seated football stadium.
- a beautiful ancient Roman opera house.

b)       The use of Linking Verbs/ relating verbs.
Ex :
- The temple is so magnificent.
- The temple consists of five terraces.

c)        The use of Simple Present Tense
Ex :
- The museum houses hundreds of Greek Statues.
- The hotel provides 450 rooms and a large swimming pool.

d)      The use of degree of comparison
Ex :
- The weather in Jakarta is hotter than Bandung.
- Bogor has the same weather as Ungaran.
Example of Descriptive Text :

     Betang house is a typical traditional house Kalimantan contained in various parts of Kalimantan, especially in upstream areas which usually becomes the center of the Dayak tribe settlements, where the river is the main transportation routes for the Dayak tribe to perform a variety of mobility everyday life like going to work to the fields where Dayak tribe fields are usually far from residential areas, or perform commercial activities (the ancient Dayak tribe usually trade using the barter system of mutual exchange with the fields, gardens and livestock).

      Great shape and this Betang house varies in different places. There Betang house which reach lengths up to 150 meters and 30 meters wide. Generally Betang house built in the form of a stage with a height of three to five feet from the ground. The high building this Betang I expect to avoid flooding in the rainy season that threatened areas in the upstream river in Borneo. Some housing units could have a house betang more than one depending on the size of the household members of such residential community. Each household (family) occupies the chamber (room) that the barriers of a large house Betang, along with that in general the Dayak tribes also have single houses built temporarily to perform the activity fields, and this is because away distance between fields with the settlements.

      More than buildings for dwelling Dayak tribes, actually Betang house is the heart of the social structure of the life of the Dayak. Betang culture is a reflection of the togetherness in the daily life of the Dayaks. Inside the house this Betang every individual's life in the household and society systematically arranged by mutual agreement as stated in customary law. Common security, both from criminal interference or sharing food, the joys and sorrows as well as mobilization of manpower to work the fields. The main value that stands out in life at home is the value of togetherness Betang (communalism) among the citizens who inhabit it, regardless of the differences they have. From this we know that the Dayak tribe is the tribe who appreciate a difference. Dayak tribe appreciate the difference of ethnic, religious or social background.

Senin, 07 Februari 2011

Finite Verbs

Finite verbs (sometimes called main verbs) are verb forms suitable for use in predicates in that they carry inflections or other formal characteristics limiting their number(singular / plural), person, and tense(past / present etc). Finite verbs can function on their own as the core of an independent sentence.
The finite forms of a verb are the forms where the verb shows tense, person or number.
Non-finite verb forms have no person or number, but some types can show tense.
For example
  • I walked, they walk, and she walks are finite verbs
    * (to) walk is an infinitive.
  • I lived in Germany.
    * "I" is the subject. "Lived" describes what the subject did. "Lived" is a finite verb.
  • The truck demolished the restaurant.
  • The leaves were yellow and sickly.
·   Finite verb forms include: I go, she goes, he went
·   Non-finite verb forms include: to go, going, gone

·         Infinitive
Definition: Infinitive is the base form of the verb. The infinitive form of a verb is the form which follows "to".
For example:
·  (to) go, (to) be,(to) ask, (to) fight, (to) understand, (to) walk .
Infinitives may occur with or without the infinitive marker "to". Infinitives without "to" are known as "bare infinitives".
For example:
·  Help me open the door.
The infinitive can have the following forms:
  1. The perfect infinitive
    to have + past participle

    For example: to have broken, to have seen, to have saved.
    This form is most commonly found in Type 3 conditional sentences, using the conditional perfect.

    For example:
    • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake.
    • Someone must have broken the window and climbed in.
    • I would like to have seen the Taj Mahal when I was in India.
    • He pretended to have seen the film.
    • If I'd seen the ball I would have caught it.

  1. The continuous infinitive
    to be + present participle

    For example: to be swimming, to be joking, to be waiting

    • I'd really like to be swimming in a nice cool pool right now.
    • You must be joking!
    • I happened to be waiting for the bus when the accident happened.

  1. The perfect continuous infinitive
    to have been + present participle

    Examples: to have been crying, to have been waiting, to have been painting

    • The woman seemed to have been crying.
    • You must have been waiting for hours!
    • He pretended to have been painting all day.

  1. The passive infinitive
    to be + past participle

    For example: to be given, to be shut, to be opened

    • I am expecting to be given a pay-rise next month.
    • These doors should be shut.
    • This window ought to be opened.
NOTE: As with the present infinitive, there are situations where the "to" is omitted.
  • He claimed to be an expert.
  • I managed to reach the top of the hill.
  • Don't pretend that you know the answer.
  • She failed to explain the problem clearly.
  • The customs man demanded to search our luggage.
  • I can't afford to go out tonight.